Exacting measurements on atoms do better than theory
1 May 2015 Scientists in NUS measured transition probabilities in agreement with but up to 6 times more precise than the previous best experimental results.
The equations of physics allow scientists to precisely calculate the properties of matter – in principle. In practice, the complexities of having many particles interacting with each other, even inside a single atom, mean that theoretical calculations typically involve simplifying assumptions. Different assumptions can lead to different results, so experiments are needed to constrain the values.
New measurements of Barium ions made at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) with precision better than one percent highlight how laboratory data can distinguish between theoretical calculations. The results, published in Physical Review A on 17 April as a Rapid Communication, are relevant to the search for physics beyond the Standard Model.
A team led by Prof Manas MUKHERJEE from the Department in Physics in NUS measured the transition probabilities and branching fraction of a singly-charged Barium ion, 138Ba+, from an excited p-state to lower energy s and d states. Barium is a candidate for searching for physics beyond the Standard Model by measurement of its parity violation. The strength of the violation depends heavily on the transition probabilities. The branching fraction also features in calculations of the abundance of Barium in the solar and stellar atmospheres.
The 138Ba+ ion has a structure resembling the simplest atom, Hydrogen, because it has a single electron in an outer shell. But unlike Hydrogen which has only that one electron, in 138Ba+ there are many-body effects from its 136 inner electrons. It's these effects that theoretical calculations struggle to account for.
The team performed measurements on chains of 138Ba+ in a linear ion trap having from a few to 20 ions. The researchers achieved transition probabilities in agreement with but up to 6 times more precise than the previous best experimental results. Whereas all theoretical values fell within the uncertainty bars on previous experimental values, the new measurement distinguishes between them.
Manas says his group is moving on to making precision measurements of other features of 138Ba+relevant to studying parity violation. "We have a programme that is longer term," he says.
For more information, please refer to http://www.quantumlah.org/highlight/150422_precision.php
The figure shows a long chain of trapped barium ions used for the precision measurement. These measurements performed in CQT researcher Manas Mukherjee's laboratory will contribute to the search for physics beyond the Standard Mode. [Image credit: Manas Mukherjee]
De Munshi D, Dutta T, Rebhi R, Mukherjee M. “Precision measurement of branching fractions of Ba138+: Testing many-body theories below the 1% level.” Physical Review A 91 (2015) 040501(R)