Metal oxides and oxysalts as anode materials for li ion batteries
Dr M.V. REDDY, Prof G.V. Subba Rao and Prof B.V.R. CHOWDARI from Solid State Ionics/ Advanced Batteries Lab, Department of Physics, published their review paper on anode materials for Li-ion batteries.
This review highlights the academic and applied aspects of electrochemical energy storage and Li-cycling properties of binary/ternary/complex metal oxides and carbon/carbon nano tubes/graphene metal oxide composites which have been studied for the past 15 years as prospective future-generation anode materials for use in the lithium ion batteries (LIBs).
The motivation for the studies of the oxides as negative electrode (anode) materials came from the urge to replace the graphite anode and increase the energy density, decrease the cost, and most importantly, ensure safety-in-operation of the existing rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs), especially for use in the electric/plug-in-hybrid (EV/PHEV) vehicles and for off-peak energy-storage and storage systems for solar energy and stationary electric grid applications.
The four mechanisms (refer to Figure 1) by which Li- cyclability can be achieved in metal oxides are, via the Li-intercalation-de-intercalation reaction, as happens in the layered graphite, Li-alloying-de-alloying reaction as in Sn, and by the conversion (redox) reaction involving a transition or non- transition metal and Li2O and conversion/alloying-de-alloying reactions. As a result of the extensive researches and use of the methodology of nanotechnology, the materials chemistry and electrochemistry of these oxides have been enhanced and enriched very significantly. While LIBs with many of the oxide anodes have been fabricated and tested, those with the oxide, Li4Ti5O12 are on the verge of commercialization as power packs for the EV/PHEV, due to their outstanding performance. It is hoped that the next few years will see the development and adaption of at least three or more oxide anodes in LIBs for use in high energy density and high power applications.
It is the first time that an Asian university has published a critical Review paper in Chemical Reviews in the area of anodes materials Lithium-ion batteries, and it is also one of the top four most read articles between April and June 2013.
Figure 1 .